The humiliating defeat of the Athenians in the expedition in Sicily (415-413 b.c.) from the Spartians, allowed an oligarchy to establish the tyranny of "Triakonta". The government of the city by the tyrants was characterized by violence and terrorism.
Their inversion by the republicans lead by Crasivoulo meant the reintroduction of an institution and to its further intensification.
After martial wars of almost one century the relations of Spartians and Athenians had sunk into deep crisis, which the ambitious king of Macedonia Philippos exploited and so he conquered it. During the period of acne of the Macedonian dynasty, Athens devolved to a secondary place.
Of course with the increase of revenues and the offer from Alexandros of the loot from his expedition, the city presented significant artistic activity (Panathinaikos stage) while a rapid increase of commercial activity was marked. The Macedonian sovereignty followed the Romean. The Romeans behaved with particular respect to Athens, offering her the status of confederate state. 86 b.c. Athens after a long siege fell in the hand of the Roman Emperor Silla.
Charmed by the intervention of wise men of the new sovereign city did not realise his initial intent of destroying the city.
However important artistic creations were transported by the new conquerors to Rome and their place occupied Roman emperors. However between the Roman emperors certain individuals existed who, influenced from their love for the Greek classic antiquity adopted her important intellectual and cultural contribution.
The final significant place is occupied by Adrianos (117-138 a.d.). This is when the temple of Olympan Zeus was finalized, manufactured and up to this day a homonym aqueduct is saved and the library was also built. In the same period in the eminent speaker Tiverios Klaudios Irodis lived inAthens, who in the memory of his spouse Rigilis, built the homonym Conservatoire under the Acropolis.